aspnetcore 应用 接入Keycloak快速上手指南
阅读原文时间:2021年05月10日阅读:18

登录及身份认证是现代web应用最基本的功能之一,对于企业内部的系统,多个系统往往希望有一套SSO服务对企业用户的登录及身份认证进行统一的管理,提升用户同时使用多个系统的体验,Keycloak正是为此种场景而生。本文将简明的介绍Keycloak的安装、使用,并给出aspnetcore 应用如何快速接入Keycloak的示例。

Keycloak是什么

Keycloak是一种面向现代应用和服务的开源IAM(身份识别与访问管理)解决方案

Keycloak提供了单点登录(SSO)功能,支持OpenID ConnectOAuth 2.0SAML 2.0标准协议,拥有简单易用的管理控制台,并提供对LDAP、Active Directory以及Github、Google等社交账号登录的支持,做到了非常简单的开箱即用。

官网: https://www.keycloak.org/

Keycloak常用核心概念介绍

首先通过官方的一张图来了解下整体的核心概念

这里先只介绍4个最常用的核心概念:

  1. Users: 用户,使用并需要登录系统的对象

  2. Roles: 角色,用来对用户的权限进行管理

  3. Clients: 客户端,需要接入Keycloak并被Keycloak保护的应用和服务

  4. Realms: 领域,领域管理着一批用户、证书、角色、组等,一个用户只能属于并且能登陆到一个域,域之间是互相独立隔离的, 一个域只能管理它下面所属的用户

Keycloak服务安装及配置

安装Keycloak

Keycloak安装有多种方式,这里使用Docker进行快速安装

登录后复制

docker run -d --name keycloak \
    -p 8080:8080 \
    -e KEYCLOAK_USER=admin \
    -e KEYCLOAK_PASSWORD=admin \
    jboss/keycloak:13.0.0

访问http://localhost:8080并点击Administration Console进行登录

创建Realm

创建一个新的realm: demo,后续所有的客户端、用户、角色等都在此realm中创建

创建客户端
创建前端应用客户端

创建一个新的客户端:KeycloakAuthaspnet,Access Type选择public

关于客户端的访问类型(Access Type)

上面创建的2个客户端的访问类型分别是public、bearer-only,那么为什么分别选择这种类型,实际不同的访问类型有什么区别呢?

事实上,Keycloak目前的访问类型共有3种:

  • confidential:适用于服务端应用,且需要浏览器登录以及需要通过密钥获取access token的场景。典型的使用场景就是服务端渲染的web系统。
  • public:适用于客户端应用,且需要浏览器登录的场景。典型的使用场景就是前端web系统,包括采用vue、react实现的前端项目等。
  • bearer-only:适用于服务端应用,不需要浏览器登录,只允许使用bearer token请求的场景。典型的使用场景就是restful api。

Access Type 里面选 Confidential,然后才有 Client Secret ,保存之后,会出现Credentials的Tab,记录下这里的secret,后面要用到

创建用户和角色
创建角色

创建2个角色:admin、user

还可以创建全局的角色

创建用户

创建1个用户:geffzhang

绑定用户和角色
给geffzhang 用户分配角色admin和user

aspnetcore 应用集成Keycloak简明指南

添加 Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect  和  Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity 包

     net5.0      afab524d-850e-499a-bc13-98f61ca0eb3b      Linux   

                      

Appsettings.json

// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to add services to the container.
     public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
     {
         services.AddControllersWithViews();
        
         services.AddAuthentication(options =>
         {
             //Sets cookie authentication scheme
             options.DefaultAuthenticateScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
             options.DefaultSignInScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
             options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
         })

.AddCookie(cookie =>
         {
             //Sets the cookie name and maxage, so the cookie is invalidated.
             cookie.Cookie.Name = "keycloak.cookie";
             cookie.Cookie.MaxAge = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(60);
             cookie.Cookie.SecurePolicy = CookieSecurePolicy.SameAsRequest;
             cookie.SlidingExpiration = true;
         })
         .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
         {
             /*
              * ASP.NET core uses the http://*:5000 and https://*:5001 ports for default communication with the OIDC middleware
              * The app requires load balancing services to work with :80 or :443
              * These needs to be added to the keycloak client, in order for the redirect to work.
              * If you however intend to use the app by itself then,
              * Change the ports in launchsettings.json, but beware to also change the options.CallbackPath and options.SignedOutCallbackPath!
              * Use LB services whenever possible, to reduce the config hazzle :)
             */

//Use default signin scheme
             options.SignInScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
             //Keycloak server
             options.Authority = Configuration.GetSection("Keycloak")["ServerRealm"];
             //Keycloak client ID
             options.ClientId = Configuration.GetSection("Keycloak")["ClientId"];
             //Keycloak client secret
             options.ClientSecret = Configuration.GetSection("Keycloak")["ClientSecret"];
             //Keycloak .wellknown config origin to fetch config
             options.MetadataAddress = Configuration.GetSection("Keycloak")["Metadata"];
             //Require keycloak to use SSL
             options.RequireHttpsMetadata = false;
             options.GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint = true;
             options.Scope.Add("openid");
             options.Scope.Add("profile");
             //Save the token
             options.SaveTokens = true;
             //Token response type, will sometimes need to be changed to IdToken, depending on config.
             options.ResponseType = OpenIdConnectResponseType.Code;
             //SameSite is needed for Chrome/Firefox, as they will give http error 500 back, if not set to unspecified.
             options.NonceCookie.SameSite = SameSiteMode.Unspecified;
             options.CorrelationCookie.SameSite = SameSiteMode.Unspecified;
            
             options.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
             {
                 NameClaimType = "name",
                 RoleClaimType = ClaimTypes.Role,
                 ValidateIssuer = true
             };

});

/*
          * For roles, that are defined in the keycloak, you need to use ClaimTypes.Role
          * You also need to configure keycloak, to set the correct name on each token.
          * Keycloak Admin Console -> Client Scopes -> roles -> mappers -> create
          * Name: "role client mapper" or whatever you prefer
          * Mapper Type: "User Client Role"
          * Multivalued: True
          * Token Claim Name: role
          * Add to access token: True
          */

/*
          * Policy based authentication
          */

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
         {
             //Create policy with more than one claim
             options.AddPolicy("users", policy =>
             policy.RequireAssertion(context =>
             context.User.HasClaim(c =>
                     (c.Value == "user") || (c.Value == "admin"))));
             //Create policy with only one claim
             options.AddPolicy("admins", policy =>
                 policy.RequireClaim(ClaimTypes.Role, "admin"));
             //Create a policy with a claim that doesn't exist or you are unauthorized to
             options.AddPolicy("noaccess", policy =>
                 policy.RequireClaim(ClaimTypes.Role, "noaccess"));
         });

/*
          * Non policy based authentication
          * Uncomment below and comment the policy section
          */
       
         //services.AddAuthorization();

}

经过上述的配置,通过oidc 很容易就接入到了Keycloak。具体代码请参见:https://github.com/NanoFabricFX/AspNetCore-keycloak/tree/dotnet5

运行效果,第一次访问项目会跳转Keycloak登录页

用户登陆geffzhang

总结

Keycloak部署及接入简单,轻量的同时功能又不失强大,非常适合企业内部的SSO方案。在Identity Server4 收费的背景之下,微软计划在.NET 6里面继续集成,已经被社区骂的狗血喷头https://devblogs.microsoft.com/aspnet/asp-net-core-6-and-authentication-servers/

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